UNIX operating system applications
UNIX is a portable computer operating system originally developed by a group of research laboratories of AT & T and Bell Labs, among which were initially Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie.
History of UNIX
Unix was designed at Bell Laboratories. The first system that can be defined for all purposes as “Unix System” was developed by Ken Thompson in 1969 to run a program called “Space Travel” that simulated the movements of the sun and planets, as well as the movement of a spaceship that could land in different places.
The Unix operating system can be summarized into the following characteristics:
- Multi user: multiple users can interact simultaneously (from different terminals) with the system, which avoids interference between the activities of different users. Within the system each user is uniquely identified by a logical name (the username). In addition, users are divided into groups, each uniquely identified by its name (group name). In every system is called the root, which is the system administrator, and that, in general, has no limitation in access to resources of the system;
- Multiprogramming (multitasking): its core can support the simultaneous execution of multiple processes run time division;
- Memory management: virtual memory management system based on Unix paging and segmentation. These features allow any process to address a memory size may exceed those of the main memory that is available;
- Portable: through the use of C in the implementation of the system, it has high portability, and is now available on a wide range of architectures;
- Open: especially in more recent versions of Unix features have gradually aligned with the POSIX standard. Also produces some of the most common Unix services and communication protocols of the Internet, enabling easy integration of Unix systems within a network;
- Development environment for C programs: UNIX still maintains a close link with the C language This relationship is also evident in the availability of system utilities within a fairly rich set of tools for C application development (including the compiler cc).
UNIX and the Bell Laboratories (Sixties)
The development of Unix is partly due to a previous project, Multics, very quickly dismissed by the management at Bell Labs because of its perceived complexity.
Multics was born with conditions very advanced for its time, in particular, was an operating system that supports execution of applications in time-sharing. We chose to develop it internally, given the lack of support that the then computer manufacturer gave to this. His name BESYS the operating system that was installed by default on machines, and this was more like a simple extension of the hardware. BESYS requires massive manual intervention by operators, each sequence of operations should be charged the man with great waste of time.
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